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What is oncomarkers?


What is oncomarkers? What is their role in modern oncology?

Tumor markers are specific substances that are formed as a result of life of cancer cells and is usually found in blood or urine of cancer patients. They are extremely diverse in their structure, although in most cases are proteins or their derivatives. Some of them are highly specific, ie characteristic of one type of tumor.
The search for specific tumor markers and cheap more common forms of cancer (digestive tract, lung, breast, etc.) continue to this day. Because early diagnosis of cancer - it saved the lives of hundreds of thousands and even millions of patients.

The first success in this area belonged to Dr. Golda Joseph (Joseph Gold), who in 1965 found in the blood of patients with colon cancer substance called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or rakovoembrionalny antigen (CEA). By the end of 1970 have already been developed tests for several types of cancers. A new tumor marker were awarded numbered names, for example, CA 19-9 for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer, CA 15-3 - for breast cancer and CA 125 - for ovarian cancer.

What is needed oncomarkers?
Definition of most oncomarkers solves currently following tasks:
identify groups at high risk of developing cancer;
specify the alleged source of tumor patients before the in-depth survey (ie, helps to define the list really necessary diagnostic methods), in patients with advanced forms of the disease, when there is a conglomeration of tumor that grow in many tissues and is difficult to understand, even on an operating table, from which authority emanates tumor;
diagnosis of cancer recurrence (not universally accepted by specialists, because they are often symptoms of cancer and growth markers in the blood are often coincide in time);
assessment of efficacy of operative treatment, namely, deleted or not all the tumor (most often for prostate cancer, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (placenta), ovarian cancer and testes from embryonic and epithelial cells);
monitoring treatment efficacy in general (much easier and cheaper to estimate the concentration of markers in the blood than to repeat many times the various instrumental and laboratory diagnostic techniques).

What you should ask your doctor after a study of blood (urine) on oncomarkers:
Raised whether I oncomarkers?
What specific marker upgraded?
What does this raise?
Should I change medication?
Evaluated whether the change in the treatment of tumor markers?
How often should I get tested?
Feel free to openly discuss with your doctor, any interest or you do not understand the questions.

The most frequently identified oncomarkers
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) - increased in 2 / 3 of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer).
Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) - increases with multiple myeloma and certain types of lymphomas (tumors of the bone marrow and hematopoietic system).
Ca 15-3, CA 27.29 - originally were markers of breast cancer. They increased slightly (less than 10%) in the early stages of the disease.

The cost of determining tumor markers from 50 rubles.

Source: material media.



 

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