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Frostbite Causes Symptoms Treatment



First aid for frostbite

Chilblain - Tissue damage caused by exposure to low temperatures.In all cases, cooling and freezing of a man, no matter how much they were not, you should consult your doctor.



Frostbite can occur not only in the cold, but at a temperature of about zero degrees, if the increased humidity, strong wind and wet clothes on a man ..

"Iron freezing" occurs on contact with warm skin with a cold metal object. It is worth curious toddler grab his bare hand for any piece of metal, or worse, to lick her tongue, as he tightly to her stick.

Contributes to the development of frostbite as drunkenness, when a person loses alertness.

Tight shoes and clothes can also cause freezing.


Symptoms of frostbite

Initially appears pale skin at the site of frostbite, which is accompanied by escalating tingling and pain.

The pain initially progresses, and if exposure to cold continues, it will gradually cease, the affected portion of the body numb and loses sensitivity.

Violated the function of limbs: a person can not, for example, move your fingers.

The skin becomes cold and dense to the touch.

Chilblain becomes deathly waxy color (white, yellow or blue).

When freezing a person feels at first fatigue, drowsiness, indifference to everything going on, and on further cooling of the body occurs fainting (loss of consciousness, respiratory distress and circulatory problems).

With symptoms of cessation of breathing and cardiac arrest is death.


There are four degrees of frostbite

I degree - poor circulation in the skin without irreversible damage to her;
II degree - necrosis of the surface layers of skin to malpigieva layer;
III degree - a continuous necrosis of the skin and underlying soft tissues;
IV degree - necrosis of soft tissues and bones.

However, immediately determine the stage of frostbite is not possible. Reliably judge how seriously damaged tissue, can only through a few days.


What to do if frostbite?

The victim immediately by any means warm. But doing this is not fast, but gradually. Make it into a warm room. Remove the cold clothing and shoes.

Writing to drink warm tea, coffee or milk. To improve blood supply to apply the heart drops to aspirin, analgin, 2 tablets "But-spa" and papaverine.

Further action in the provision of primary health care vary depending on the degree of frostbite.

When I degree frostbite pale cheeks, nose, ears, enough to pound before the appearance of redness and tingling. It is better to rub the frostbitten area of the body rubbing alcohol, vodka, cologne, and in their absence - a light glove, woolen cloth, or breathing. Helpful, warm bath. Is strictly forbidden to rub a sore spot with snow. Snow can be even more traumatic skin and infection.

When frostbite II-IV degree should act differently. Rapid warming, massage or rubbing should not. It is recommended to impose on the skin surface heat insulating bandage (a layer of gauze, a thick layer of wool, again a layer of gauze, a top oil cloth or rubberized fabric). The affected limb is fixed with improvised means (a plaque, a piece of plywood, heavy cardboard), and superimposing them over pribintovyvaya bandages. As an insulating material can be used jackets, sweaters, woolen fabric. What should I do?

In conjunction with the activities of first aid is an urgent need to call an ambulance to provide medical assistance.

Prevention of hypothermia

There are a few simple rules that will allow you to avoid hypothermia and frostbite in extreme cold:

  • Do not drink alcohol - alcohol intoxication causes great loss of heat at the same time, causing the illusion of warmth. There is a loss of concentration attention to the signs of frostbite.
  • Do not smoke in the cold - Smoking reduces peripheral blood circulation, and thus makes the course more vulnerable.
  • Wear loose clothing - it promotes normal blood circulation. Dress as a "cabbage" - in this case between the layers of clothes is always a layer of air, excellent heat retention. Outerwear need to be waterproof.
  • Tight Shoes, No insoles, wet dirty socks are often used as the basic prerequisite for the appearance of scuffs and frostbite.
  • Do not go out into the cold without gloves, hat and scarf.
  • In windy cold weather before going out on exposed body brush with a special cream.
  • Do not wear in the cold metal jewelry - rings and earrings. First, the metal cools the body much faster to lower temperatures, resulting in possible "sticking" to the skin with pain and cold trauma. Secondly, the rings on the fingers prevents the normal circulation of blood. In general, the frost, avoid exposure of bare skin to metal.
  • Use the help of a friend - watch out for another person, especially behind the ears, nose and cheeks, for any noticeable changes in color, and he or she will be watching yours.
  • Do not remove the cold shoe with frostbitten limbs - they swell, and you can not wear shoes again. As soon as possible to reach a warm room.
  • Returning home after a long walk in the frost, be sure to make sure no frostbite limbs, ears and nose.
  • Once on a walk you feel supercooling or freezing of limbs, as soon as possible to go into any warm place - shop, cafe, staircase to keep warm.
  • Hide from the wind - the probability of frostbite in the wind is much higher.
  • Do not wet skin - water conducts heat much better than air. Do not go out into the cold with wet hair after a shower.
  • Keep in mind that children of thermotaxis body is not yet fully configured, and the elderly, and for some illnesses, this function is compromised. These categories are more prone to hypothermia and frostbite, and this should be considered when planning trips.

Fast Delivery victim to a medical facility is also a measure of first aid.

Remember that the best way to get out of an unpleasant situation - it does not fall into. In the bitter cold try not to leave home without a special need.


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