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Proteins, fats, carbohydrates. The role of the body


What are proteins, fats, carbohydrates and fiber? What role do they play in the human body? What is the daily human need for these important components?

Protein - Are complex macromolecular organic substances composed of amino acids.At present about 20 different amino acids.
There are essential amino acids (synthesized in the body) and essential (can not be synthesized in the body)
The human body consists of more than 50,000 different proteins.

The role and function of proteins in the human body
  • Enzymatic - acceleration of chemical reactions in millions of times.
  • Regulatory - protein hormone involved in maintaining homeostasis and may adjust the speed readout of genetic information.
  • Receptor - signaling molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters).
  • Transport - transport of albumin and hemoglobin to organs and cells.
  • Structural - give shape and properties of tissues (collagen, elastin).
  • Safety - immunoglobulins recognize and neutralize foreign molecules, viruses and bacteria.
  • Contractile - actin and myosin of skeletal muscles.
  • Keep the water-base balance.
  • Outputs the decay products and introduce nutrients (food).
  • Participate in the reproduction of cells and their growth.
  • Keep the water-base balance.

Proteins enter the body with food. Of course, in foods of animal origin more protein than plant foods. The protein is digested to amino acids and amino acid enters the blood. Then, amino acid forms a protein and a protein amino acid produced again. With age, protein synthesis in an organism is reduced by 5 times. If the body is not at least one of the essential amino acids, the protein synthesis ceases, which eventually leads to the formation of carcinogenic substances.

Which food contains protein:
meat, fish, milk, brown rice, chocolate, pasta, wholemeal, eggs, soft cheeses.

Fats and lipids - A mixture of different triglycerides - esters of glycerol and three fatty acids.
Fatty acids are divided into:
1. Saturated (high density) - VLC.
2. Unsaturated (low density) - PUFA.

Of particular biological value are unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic).Are not synthesized in the body and called essential fatty acids.

The role of fats in the body

  • The energy supply of the organism.
  • Adipose (protective) layer of organs and tissues.
  • Participate in the synthesis of eicosanoids, regulate blood pressure, body temperature, bronchial lumen, the secretion of hormones, the sensitivity of nerve fibers.
  • Adjust flow to the cells and bodies of water, salts, amino acids, carbohydrates.
  • Participate in the derivation of cell degradation products.

Fats in the human body there are two kinds:

1. Structural fat (protoplasmic).

2. Emergency fat (reserve).

Foods containing fat:
Meat, vegetable oil and animal origin, cheeses, nuts, fish, chips, cookies, cakes.

Carbohydrates - Complex organic substances composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Carbohydrates are classified into 3 types:
  • Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose).
  • Oligosaccharides (sucrose, maltose and lactose). They give you energy.
  • Polysaccharides (their molecules consist of a large number of monosaccharides)

The first two types are easily digestible food and digest quickly. Polysaccharides are digested slowly. These include beans, potatoes, vegetables.

Foods containing carbohydrates: Beans, vegetables, bread, sugar, honey, sweets, cereals, mushrooms.

Are carbohydrates, which are not digested in the body. This fiber. And although it is edible, its role in the human body is enormous. She is involved in digestion and accelerates passage of food through the food tract. Dietary fiber - natural broom, which cleanses the body of waste, binds it and displays.

Foods containing fat: Asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cucumbers, garlic, zucchini, tomatoes, mushrooms.

Rate of consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates per day

The average adult needs per day about 3000 kcal. For this amount of calories needed 120 gr. proteins (of which at least half - of animal protein), 80 gr. Fat (not less than half - of animals) and 500 gr. carbohydrate (preferably, for the most part starch and no sugar).



 

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