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Carbohydrate The role and function in human life



Carbohydrates (sugars) - a common name large class of natural organic compounds.The formula - C m H 2n O n. These are compounds of carbon and water. Hence the name.

The functions of carbohydrates in the human body

  • This is one of the most important components of our diet. It is from carbohydrates the body gets more than half the calories. They constitute the bulk of the diet and provide About 60% of its energotsennost.
  • Supplier of energy, they need to work liver.
  • Without carbohydrates can not be assimilated by the body protein and fat.
  • In complex with proteins they form some hormones and enzymes, saliva, and other biologically important compounds.
  • Of particular importance are cellulose and pectin, which is almost not digested in the gut and are not sources of energy. However, these ballast substances, neusvoyaemye carbohydrates play an important role in human nutrition.
  • Lentinan (polysaccharides) has a pronounced anti-tumor activity.
  • 1 g carbohydrates by oxidation in the body gives 16.7 kJ (4 kcal).


Foods containing carbohydrates

Most plant foods are rich in carbohydrates: bread, cereals, pasta, potatoes.

Pure carbohydrate is sugar.

Honey, depending on the origin, contains 70-80% mono-and disaccharides. Its high sweetness due to a high content of fructose, sweet property which is approximately 2.5 times higher than glucose and sucrose in 1.5 above.

Fungi and algae Laminaria emeystvo (Laminariaceae) are a source of polysaccharides.

Proved that the catechins and polysaccharides in green tea, play a key role in lowering blood sugar.

Sweets, cakes, jams, ice cream and other sweets are sources of complex carbohydrates and are a danger to people fattening. A distinctive feature of these products is high calorie and low content of essential nutritional factors.

With food comes simple and complex carbohydrates, and digestible carbohydrates neusvoyaemye. The major simple carbohydrates are glucose, galactose and fructose (monosaccharides), sucrose, lactose and maltose (disaccharides). Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) - starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin.

All carbohydrates are divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides - (From Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar) - the simplest form of sugar.Monosaccharides are usually colorless, water-soluble, transparent solids.

Monosaccharides are easily digested by the body, because it does not need to split them into components. The most common monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, ribose and galactose.

Oligosaccharides consist of the same monosaccharides, but the number of the last to create the oligosaccharide does not exceed a dozen, and the molecule is included in the monosaccharide composition of oligosaccharide incomplete.Of the oligosaccharides in our diet contains sucrose, lactose and maltose.

Sweet are monosaccharides and oligosaccharides. Most sweet fructose, followed by sucrose and glucose. The remaining sugar is much lower on this indicator.

Polysaccharides - a complex compound, which consists of many monosaccharides.In this case, polysaccharides can be digestible and is not digested. The first can be called starch. To the latter also include pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose.

Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) - a building material for our cells.

In recent years, increased interest in polysaccharides. Whereas previously they were classified as inert substances, the results of medical and scientific Recent studies have shown its pronounced biological activity associated with the sorbent and anti-inflammatory properties.

Source of polysaccharides are mainly cereals. But the problem of the XXI century - a refined meal. To retain the freshness of the food and presentation, it is subjected to treatment, after which there is little that remains. As an example - refined sugar and modern bread. They almost no nutrients.

Glucose - a major source of energy for living organisms.Glucose provides many metabolic processes. In a healthy person the amount of glucose in the blood should not exceed 6.7 mg / dL. The amount of glucose increases during meals and immediately after, but during sporting activities or heavy lifting falls. Glucose is needed for the functioning of the nervous system. Glucose is one of the components of complex sugars. It is present in almost all polysaccharide.

Fructose in our diet is represented a little less, but it's also a very important component.And, for its processing does not need insulin. All fructose entering the body, metabolized by the liver. Absorb fructose in the human body can only this body, and sperm.

Galactose - this is one of the components of lactose - milk sugar.The liver can convert galactose to glucose status.

Glucose contained in honey, fruits and vegetables. Apples, pears, quince more fructose, and plums, peaches and apricots more glucose.

Sucrose, derived in the form of raw beet juice or cane, digested very quickly, but sucrose as white sugar, which is mainly represented in our diets is processed by the body is difficult.

Lactose - comes into contact with dairy products.If the kids it is very important that people have more adult children of lactose digestion often causes difficulties. The substance, which serves to break down lactose, is produced with age in smaller quantities.

Maltose - contained in honey, molasses and beer.

Starch - is one of the largest sources of carbohydrates in our diet.Starches enter the body of the plant, which is produced under the influence of ultraviolet rays.

The process of digestion of starches begins in the mouth, which already partially processed into maltose. This is one of the proofs of the importance of thorough chewing of food. Further, once in the intestine, maltose is split to monosaccharides, the sugar is easily penetrate through the intestinal wall into the blood.
Dietary fiber - a fiber, pectin and cellulose.The function of food in human life is high. These components in the body become gelatinous clots that clean the intestines and absorb all harmful substances. Dietary fiber necessary for life support beneficial microbes that inhabit the intestine.

Lack of carbohydrates causes symptoms

Carbohydrates are formed in the body from fats and proteins. However, prolonged lack of carbohydrates in the diet leads to a violation of lipid and protein, consumption of protein food and tissue proteins. In the blood accumulate harmful products of incomplete oxidation of fatty acids and some amino acids - ketone bodies (ketosis), acid-base state of the body is shifted to the acid side (metabolic acidosis). Serious consequence of carbohydrate deficiency - reduced blood glucose (hypoglycemia), which is especially sensitive central nervous system.

There is weakness, drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, hunger, nausea, sweating, trembling hands. These phenomena are rapidly after ingestion of sugar.

Excess carbohydrates cause of the symptoms

Excessive consumption of carbohydrates - a common cause of metabolic disorders.Such food leads to obesity. Therefore, in the diet of obesity is important to limit carbohydrate.


Provide the necessary carbohydrates and dietary fiber

You can use dietary supplements company NNPTSTO



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